Whether you are a scientist, artist, or just a fan of space, you’ll be interested in learning about the Bruparc Atomium in Brussels, Belgium. Located at the Bruparc Campus, this is the only space museum in the world to feature two model atomiums: AO_4 and GUM4. Both are driven by a hydrogen maser and a caesium clock, respectively. This article compares the two.
Bruparc Atomium in Brussels, Belgium
Located in Bruparc, Belgium, Atomium is one of the best attractions in Brussels. Designed by Andre Waterkeyn, Atomium is an iconic structure that is part of the city’s landscape. A museum is located inside the structure and a Mini-Europe park is situated at the foot of the tower.
The top sphere of Atomium has a sweeping view of Brussels. The second sphere houses a museum that displays the building’s smallest details. The third sphere is an events venue.
The top sphere of the Atomium has an elevator that takes visitors to the top « ball » for a panoramic view of Brussels. The elevator has a special color illumination at night.
The escalators of the Atomium also feature light shows. The top sphere has a bar, lounge, and panoramic restaurant. The bottom sphere is home to a museum of the 1958 Expo.
The museum contains several interactive displays and exhibits that provide the best explanation of what the Atomium is all about. Some of the exhibits show the construction of the structure and the best view of the city.
Integer PPP vs atomium PPP
Choosing between integer PPP and atomium PPP is a question of choice for users looking for the best time transfer solution. Although the two techniques offer similar performance, there are differences. In this paper we compare integer PPP and atomium PPP in terms of time transfer performance and clock frequency stability. The results show that integer PPP offers a clear advantage in terms of frequency stability and long-term stability.
An ionospheric mitigation technique is not available for integer PPP, so the results are largely confined to the single-frequency code. However, a stochastic model can be used to improve frequency stability. The model is based on a dry atmosphere. This model is implemented in FES 2004 to correct ocean loading displacements. It was developed by the Royal Observatory of Belgium.
Compared to the NRCAN PPP, integer PPP showed a small improvement in clock frequency stability. It improved from 2.5 h to about four to 10 days.
AO_4 is driven by a hydrogen maser, GUM4 is driven by a caesium clock
During the last decade, optical clocks have made remarkable progress. They are now able to attain accuracies of one part in one, which corresponds to losing less than a second over the age of the Universe.
The International System of Units defines one second as 9192 631 770 oscillations per second. This definition is almost certain to change by 2030. In order to meet this definition, optical clocks must be able to maintain a one second interval of UTC.
To achieve this, an optical clock is adjusted to match narrow atomic resonances. For example, a hybrid microwave-optical system uses hydrogen maser atomic clocks to steer an optical clock. This is the first practical demonstration of an optical clock.
In the past, probing optical atomic transitions using laser light was unstable. But recent developments have allowed for more accurate optical transition probes. These are now able to maintain accuracy of one part in 10 million years, which is better than the accuracy of cesium standards.
Parking at Bruparc Atomium
Located just a few meters from the Roi Baudouin subway station, the BEPARK Brussels Atomium carpark is near the exhibition center of Brussels. The parking is owned by the BEPARK group and is part of the Bruparc park.
The Atomium is a landmark of Brussels and attracts over 600,000 visitors a year. Its nine steel spheres are connected by tubes to create a shape that resembles an iron crystal. The structure also has a number of light shows and escalators that feature different lighting effects.
There are many exhibition halls within the Atomium, including temporary exhibits. The exhibits include works of Pieter Bruegel and the UN’s development goals for gender equality. There is also a permanent exhibition that details the history of the building and the construction.
The Atomium’s Panorama level provides panoramic views of the city of Brussels. It is over 100 metres high and offers wonderful views of the city centre, the Laeken Park and Mini Europe. In addition, the museum’s temporary exhibits feature a variety of digital creation experiences.